Chinese martial history should be parallel to Chinese history, yet it is as equally unreliable and misleading...by purpose.
A more realistic chronology of the unclear or falsified history would be:
Too far back to be reliable or recorded. Archaic pre-history.
2. Never was a hero, nor sage-king, at this
time; only story-fabricated myths.
3. Dancing and health making were common.
4. Fortifications meant conflicts
and protectionism, hence martial arts creations.
5. Earliest philosphical names wuchi- 無極
and taichi- 太極 or 八卦 are no more than patterns 圖 tu; not martial names or principles which
did not appear in use until the 1800-1900's.
6. Early Dynasties plagued by numerous battles should be well documented
and a reliable start, yet none of them has 'internal' boxing mentioned nor used in war.
7. Although philosophical
differences did exist: confucian, taoist, or later buddhist,
in point of fact, in practice they became interwoven
8. Archaic names using nature and common concepts are applied to Martial
棉 圈 ' mian2 quan1' = cotton circle[ ing];
軟手 ruan3 shou3 = soft-flexible hand.
影子 拳擊 shadow +boxing
長 拳 'chang2 chuan2' or Long Boxing is a reference
to the flowing power of the
Yangtze River 揚子江, also known as the Chang Jiang 長江
or Long River. This exercise is said derivative from General/ Fist Emperor of the Song Tai Zu.
十 三 勢 、shi2 san1 shi4 = ten+three=13, power-tendency
太乙 Tai-yi, Great 1/2
intermediary boxing [associated with wudang]
天 拳 Tien chuan, heavenly
太 极 拳 proto-tai-chi-
少 九 天 拳 Shao Jiu Tian, Little Nine
合 一 拳 He yi, harmonious
union or joining as one.boxing
Note: in reviewing martial-exercise, it becomes important
to distinquish their true source, such as of 少林 Shao lin and those of 非少林 non-Shao
lin, but of similar names.
It can be noted that modern exercises consistently
are named either chuan, 拳 fist-boxing or chang, 手掌 palm or palming. As we proceed
back into older exercises, neither of these names predominates, they are identified by fa 法 method or shi 勢 innate-potential
force, or pattern 圖 symbol-mapping or gong 功 exercise variously. A principle point could
be made that rather than the usual 'internal' nei- vs 'external' wai-boxing, it would be better to use the older
shi-chuan for internal-innate force.
exercise names, although similar, are derivative refinements of older and more basic principle, ie.
Yi-, 形意拳 'form'
Yi-, 心意拳 'mind'
Chuan 意拳 'intent' [ innate intent ]
basic principles can be found within Shaolin xinyi-ba 心意把
Modern names as Tai-chi-boxing, Ba-gua palm, and Qi-gong-breath exercise, although understood now as they are, these
names and their principles do not and cannot be traced very far back without a name and/ or a principle change.
The only member of the IMA or Internal Martial Arts..meaning these three, that has undergone little
change is the Xing-yi [hsing-I] boxing 形意拳 which was in prior times was Shaolin xinyi-ba, 少林心意把
[Comment: although the basic forms and sequences of nearly
all xing-yi's are similar, virtually none of them demonstrate a continuous flowing.]
[ Note: an exact chronology is not traceable due to the multiple
destructions of Shaolin temple; xin yi ba 心意把 was well known during the Song Dynasty (960-1279) and is
rarely completely known today.]
It can be noted that contemporary exercises consistently are
named either chuan, 拳 fist-boxing or chang, 手掌 palm or palming. As we proceed back into
older exercises, neither of these names dominates, they are identified by fa 法 method or shih 勢 innate-potential,
or pattern 圖 symbol-mapping or gong 功 exercise.
2 Ancient era [ 21 battles listed]
2.1 Xia Dynasty (c. 2100 - c. 1600 BC)
2.2 Shang Dynasty (c. 1700-1046 BC)
Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BC)
2.4 Spring and Autumn Period (722-476 BC)
2.5 Warring States Period (476-221 BC)
3 Imperial era
3.1 Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC) [ 3 battles listed ]
3.2 Han Dynasty (202 BC–AD 220)
3.2.1 Western Han
3.2.2 Xin Dynasty
3.2.3 Eastern Han
3.3 Wei and Jin Period (AD 265–420)
3.4 Wu Hu Period (AD 304–439)
3.5 Southern and Northern Dynasties (AD 420–589)
3.6 Sui Dynasty (AD 589–618)
3.7 Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907)
3.8 Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (AD 907–960)
3.9 Song, Liao, Jin, and Western Xia Dynasties (AD 960–1234)
3.10 Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368)
3.11 Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644)
3.12 Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911)
Chronology of Northern Song Emperors
Taizu 太祖, 960–76
Zhenzong 真宗, 997–022
Renzong 仁宗, 023–63
Shenzong 神宗, 068–85
Huizong 徽宗, 0–26
4 Modern era
4.1 Republic of China ( ROC): (1912-1949)
4.2 People's Republic of China ( PRC), Communist China: 1949-present
Note: this listing gives the impression that each Dynasty succeeded the other, in fact they often
overlapped with multiple powers functioning.
Chinese History has never been the history of a unified country nor one standard of culture or legality.
It is important to note that 'china' the central kingdom was progressively engulfed by the Mongol leading to a Manchu tyrancy,
in effect the Han came under the Hun. The reminants of 'war lord' fiefdoms was replaced by the CPC, the Communist
Party of China; there is in fact no PRC, ...Peoples Republic of China, control remains within the CPC only.